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Hotel Management: Citing and Referencing

This is a guide to the library resources and services available at Shannon College of Hotel Management.

Why You Need to Learn to Cite and Reference

Citing and referencing are a key part of academic literacy and show that you have researched your topic.  You must acknowledge any sources that you use in your work with an in-text citation and all in-text citations must then be linked to an entry in the Reference List at the end of your assignment. 

If you don't reference sources that you have used, this is plagiarism as you are passing off another author's ideas as your own.  Citing and referencing allow your reader to trace the provenance of your arguments and find and read your source materials if they wish to.  Proper citing and referencing also demonstrate to your lecturer that you understand academic writing conventions.

You should include a citation when you use someone else’s ideas to support a point made in your work.  This use of another's ideas can take the form of:

  • Paraphrasing
  • Summarising
  • Quoting directly

The Harvard style of referencing is used at Shannon College of Hotel Management.

Guide to Harvard Referencing

How to cite

An in-text citation must include:
  • Author’s surname
  • Year of publication
  • Page number (only required for direct quotations)

The in-text citations can be included after the point has been discussed, as follows: 

People write online reviews for a variety of reasons, including the desire to share a positive event, and it is not true that it is only those who want to complain who do so (O'Connor 2020). 
Or at the beginning of a point, as follows:

O'Connor (2020) argues that.....

Page numbers need to be added to in-text citations for direct quotations, for example:
"Whilst it is easy to imagine the relationship between job satisfaction and labour turnover, the relationship between job satisfaction and commitment is more complex" (Riley 2019, p.53).

When to cite

"If I have seen further, it is by standing on the shoulders of giants"

attributed to Sir Isaac Newton

Academic knowledge is expanded and developed by building on existing knowledge, and in academia it is customary and ethically necessary for you to acknowledge sources through proper and accurate citation.  You should consider citing when you want to

  • substantiate your claims
  • identify the original publications in which an idea or concept was proposed or discussed
  • identify the original publication describing an eponymic concept or term, e.g. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
  • acknowledge and pay homage to pioneers
  • identify methodology, equipment discussed
  • authenticate data and classes of fact
  • criticise previous work
  • provide background reading

These were among 15 reasons for citing listed by Garfield (1996).

Garfield, E. (1996) 'When to Cite', The Library Quarterly, 66(4), 449-458.

How to compile a reference list

  • Always list references in alphabetical order by author surname (regardless of the order in which you have cited works in your text)
  • Do not number references 
  • Consistency of formatting references is important
    • Capitalise book, article and chapter titles in sentence style
    • Capitalise journal titles
    • Capitalise all personal names and places
    • Put the main source title in italics
    • Ensure consistency of punctuation across all references
  • References to online sources should include a stable web address, preferably a persistent identifier such as a Digital Object Identifier (doi) or a handle
  • Include an “accessed” date in references to online sources unless it is a journal article reference with a persistent identifier

The components of a reference are dependent on what type of source you are referencing. Here are some sample reference structures:

Book reference

Book chapter reference

Journal article reference

Web document reference

Newspaper article reference

Online video reference

Website reference

(Cite It Right: Guide to Harvard Referencing Style 2016)

Reference Management Software

EndNote Software 

Endnote is a bibliographic management tool for collecting, organising and citing sources.  This software is available to all NUI Galway staff and students.  If you are interested in using reference management software, you can request and install Endnote on your personal laptop.  You will need to raise a ticket here: under category 15. Software ->Request -> Endnote (Windows/Mac).

See the NUI Galway ISS website for more information on how to access EndNote software.

Contact Ailish or Gwen if you have any questions about Endnote.

EndNote Online

EndNote Online is a web-based version but has limited functionality when compared to the desktop installation.  To access EndNote Web for the first time go to:  On your first visit you will need to sign-up for an account by clicking 'Sign Up'.  You must log into your EndNote Online account while on campus at least once every 3 months to keep it activated as access is linked to your university affiliation.