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Citing & Referencing: Styles & Style guides

This guide covers the basics of citing & referencing, includes a collection of links to different styles, and discusses plagiarism, what it is, and how to avoid it.

Popular citation styles

The basic principles of referencing stay the same no matter what discipline you are writing within -- you must acknowledge your sources. What can and does change is the style of the references (or citations), that is, the way that your sources are presented. 

Click the tab that corresponds to the referencing style that you are using or want to find out more about. Different disciplines use different citation styles and most Schools have a preferred style.  Check with your School or consult your course handbook if you aren’t sure which style to use.

Harvard is a very popular style, used in cases across the sciences, social sciences and business. Harvard formatting can actually vary, which can be confusing. Check with your instructor for specific requirements, and remember to be consistent with your formatting throughout your document.

Below are some links to some useful Harvard referencing resources.

Used in the languages and humanities.

Used in psychology, as well as widely across the social sciences, including sociology and economics.

ACS style is often used by Chemistry researchers. Chapter 14 of their style guide is about referencing.

IEEE is used widely by researchers in Engineering.

Used in the humanities, social sciences and elsewhere.

Published by the Faculty of Law at Oxford University, now on its 4th edition.

The MHRA style guide is used in the humanities.

Citation guidelines for Current Opinion in Cell Biology can be found in the journal's Author information pack (linked as a pdf), see page 10 for citation guidelines.



House referencing guidelines

Some schools or disciplines on campus will use their own house style for their referencing and citation. You'll find some of those here, we will try for as complete a collection as possible!

For guidelines on citation format in the discipline of History, see their Stylesheet and Guidelines for Written Assignments. Scroll to the section beginning page 6 on Formatting your Footnotes and Bibliography.