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Handy tip: Manage your references and use reference management software from the beginning.
For more information and tutorials on referencing see the library guide: Citing & Referencing
Reference Management Software
One of the key challenges of managing your references, is keeping track of them all in an orderly way. Thankfully, there are software tools available to assist with collating and managing references effectively. Many of these products will also help to format your references as you are writing.
Click on the appropriate tab to find out more about the software that is of interest to you.
Available to NUI Galway staff and students via campus computing, or can be downloaded onto one's own machine. Includes Cite While You Write functionality for inserting and formatting references in your Word document as you write.
To download Endnote, log into the Service Desk ticketing system (servicedesk.nuigalway.ie), raise a Quick Ticket for Endnote and you will receive an email with links to the software and license.
Note that the Endnote software is for use only during one's time at the university and must be uninstalled upon leaving.
Popular citation styles
The basic principles of referencing stay the same no matter what discipline you are writing within -- you must acknowledge your sources. What can and does change is the style of the references (or citations), that is, the way that your sources are presented.
Click the tab that corresponds to the referencing style that you are using or want to find out more about. Different disciplines use different citation styles and most Schools have a preferred style. Check with your School or consult your course handbook if you aren’t sure which style to use.
See also the Styles & Style guides section of the Citing & Referencing library guide which also includes referencing guidelines for specific disciplines:
Harvard is a very popular style, used in cases across the sciences, social sciences and business. Harvard formatting can actually vary, which can be confusing. Check with your instructor for specific requirements, and remember to be consistent with your formatting throughout your document.
Below are some links to some useful Harvard referencing resources.
Used in the languages and humanities.
Used in psychology, as well as widely across the social sciences, including sociology and economics.
Curtin APA Guide
American Psychological Association (APA) Guide from Curtin University, Australia. User friendly Guide APA style with printable version.
Purdue OWL APA Style guide
Purdue OWL's guide to APA style.
ACS style is often used by Chemistry researchers. Chapter 14 of their style guide is about referencing.
IEEE is used widely by researchers in Engineering.
Used in the humanities, social sciences and elsewhere.
Chicago-Style Citation Quick Guide
This guide from Chicago's 16th edition includes sample citations for some of the more common citation types, and includes tabbed navigation between the Notes and Bibliography versus Author-Date systems.
Chicago Manual of Style, 16th ed (print)
The library has the full Chicago Manual of Style in print, see the Humanities and Social Sciences reference stacks at call number 808.027. Link to the catalogue entry, which has further information about the manual.
Published by the Faculty of Law at Oxford University, now on its 4th edition.
OSCOLA home page
Support materials here include a quick reference guide as well as links to a pdf of the Standard itself.
The MHRA style guide is used in the humanities.
MHRA Style Guide
The MHRA Style Guide page includes links to a pdf of the Guide itself, as well as a quick guide to the main features of MHRA style.
Citation guidelines for Current Opinion in Cell Biology can be found in the journal's Author information pack (linked as a pdf), see page 10 for citation guidelines.
Citing & referencing library guide