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Hotel Management: Citing and Referencing

Why You Need to Learn to Cite and Reference

Citing and referencing are a key part of academic literacy and show that you have researched your topic.  If you don't reference sources that you have used, this is plagiarism as you are passing off another author's ideas as your own.  Citing and referencing allow your reader to trace the provenance of your arguments and find and read your source materials if they wish to.  Proper citing and referencing also demonstrate to your lecturer that you understand academic writing conventions.

You should include a citation when you use someone else’s ideas to support a point made in your work.  This use of another's ideas can take the form of:

  • Paraphrasing
  • Summarising
  • Directly quoting

The Harvard style of referencing is used at Shannon College of Hotel Management.

How to Cite

 
You must cite the sources that you use in your work.  These are called in-text citations.
An in-text citation must include:
 
Author’s surname
Year of publication
Page number where relevant (for direct quotations)
 
The in-text citations can be included after the point has been discussed, as follows: 
 
People write online reviews for a variety of reasons, including the desire to share a positive event, and it is not true that it is only those who want to complain who do so (O'Connor 2020). 
 
Or at the beginning of a point, as follows:
 
O'Connor (2020) argues that.....
 
Page numbers need to be added to in-text citations for direct quotations, for example:
 
'Whilst it is easy to imagine the relationship between job staisfaction and labour turnover, the relationship between job satisfaction and commitment is more complex' (Riley 2019, p.53).
 
All in-text citations must then be linked to an entry in the Reference List at the end of your assignment.
 

When to Cite

"If I have seen further, it is by standing on the shoulders of giants"

attributed to Sir Isaac Newton

Academic knowledge is expanded and developed by building on existing knowledge, and in academia it is customary and ethically necessary for you to acknowledge sources through proper and accurate citation.  You should consider citing when you want to

  • substantiate your claims
  • identify the original publications in which an idea or concept was proposed or discussed
  • identify the original publication describing an eponymic concept or term
  • acknowledge and pay homage to pioneers
  • identify methodology, equipment discussed
  • authenticate data and classes of fact
  • criticise previous work
  • provide background reading

These were among 15 reasons for citing listed by Garfield (1996).

Garfield, E. (1996). When to Cite. The Library Quarterly, 66(4): 449-458.

Reference Management Software

EndNote Online

EndNote Online is a web-based bibliographic management tool for collecting, organising and citing sources.  Endnote Online also offers the facility to share your references with colleagues.  This service is available to all NUI Galway staff and students.

 

To access EndNote Web for the first time go to: http://www.myendnoteweb.com.  On your first visit you will need to sign-up for an account by clicking 'Sign Up'. You must be on campus to 'Sign Up', though once you create your account you can access this off campus.

 

You must log into your EndNote Online account on campus at least once every 3 months to keep it activated.

 

 

Guides to Harvard Referencing

Two key citation examples

The content of a reference depends on the format of the source being cited. Here are a couple of key examples of reference list entries from our Harvard style guide. Spot the differences; why do you think these are important?